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學習投資,就像學習一門新的語言

所屬教程:金融英語講解

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2019年10月08日

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Learning the basics of investing is like learning a new language. Whether discussing stocks, bonds, and other investment vehicles to structures, entities, and dollar cost averaging, it's no wonder many beginning investors feel like they're in uncharted waters. The good news is that once you have mastered the language and certain investing basics, you'll better understand how much of this works. To assist you on that journey, here is a look at the handful of the most common types of investments you will encounter in your lifetime.

學習投資的基本知識就像學習一門新的語言。從討論股票、債券和其他投資工具到結構、實體和美元平均成本,難怪許多剛開始投資的人會感覺自己像身處未知的水域一樣。好消息是,一旦你掌握了這門語言和某些投資基礎知識,你就能很好地理解投資是怎么操作的了。下面是你一生中會遇到的幾種最常見的投資類型:

Stocks

股票

Bonds

債券

Mutual Funds

共同基金

Real Estate

房地產

學習投資,就像學習一門新的語言

We'll also talk about a few other relevant topics, such as the legal entities - limited liability companies and limited partnerships - through which investors tend to make investments in things like hedge funds and private equity funds.

我們還將討論其他一些相關的話題,比如法律實體——有限責任公司和有限合伙企業——投資者傾向于通過它們投資對沖基金和私募股權基金。

Stocks and Bonds

股票和債券

Without a doubt, owning stocks has been the best way historically to build wealth. And for more than a century, investing in bonds has been considered one of the safest ways to make money. But how do these investments work?

毫無疑問,持有股票是歷史上積累財富的最佳方式。一個多世紀以來,投資債券被認為是最安全的賺錢方式之一。但這些投資是如何運作的呢?

Stocks are pretty simple: they're shares of ownership in a specific company. When you own a share of Apple, for example, you own a tiny piece of that company. Stock prices fluctuate with a company's fortunes, and also with the economy at large.

股票其實相當簡單:它們是某一特定公司的所有權。例如,當你擁有蘋果公司的股份時,你就擁有了該公司的一小部分。股票價格隨著公司的財富和經濟的波動而變化。

When you buy a bond, meanwhile, you are lending money to the company or institution that issued it. In the case of a school bond, for instance, you are lending money to the school district to build a new high school or improve classroom conditions. Buying a bond issued by a company means you're lending money to that company, which it can use to grow the business.

與此同時,當你購買債券時,你是在借錢給發行債券的公司或機構。例如,以學校債券為例,當你購買時,你就把錢借給學區了,用來修建一所新的高中或改善教室條件。購買一家公司發行的債券意味著你把錢借給了這家公司,它可以用來發展業務。

Investing in Mutual Funds

投資共同基金

One of the most popular ways to own stocks and/or bonds is through mutual funds. In fact, most people are statistically less likely to own individual investments than they are shares of companies through mutual funds held in their 401(k) or Roth IRA.

持有股票和(或)債券最流行的方式之一是通過共同基金。事實上,從統計數據來看,大多數人不太可能擁有個人投資,他們通常通過401(k)或Roth IRA(退休金賬戶)中的共同基金持有公司股票。

學習投資,就像學習一門新的語言

Mutual funds offer many benefits to investors, particularly to beginners who are just mastering investing basics. They're pretty easy to understand and allow you to diversify your investments over more companies. However, mutual funds also have a few serious drawbacks: they charge fees, which can eat into your profits, and they may boost your tax bill, even in a year when you don't sell shares.

共同基金為投資者帶來許多好處,特別是對剛剛掌握投資基礎知識的初學者而言。它們非常容易理解,而且還允許你在更多的公司中分散投資。然而,共同基金也有一些嚴重的缺點:他們要收取費用,這可能會減少你的利潤;他們還可能會增加你的稅收,即使是在你不出售股票的一年內。

Real Estate Investments

房地產投資

The world is full of people who are convinced that real estate is the only investment that makes sense. Whether you subscribe to that philosophy or not, there are more ways than ever to add real estate to your portfolio.

世界上到處都是那些相信房地產是唯一有意義的投資的人。不管你認同與否,現在有比以往任何時候都多的方法來在你的投資組合中加上房地產。

Yes, you can buy a home for yourself, or properties to rent. But you also can purchase a security called a real estate investment trust (REIT), which combines the benefits of stocks with the tangible property of land, shopping malls, apartment buildings, or almost anything else you can imagine.

是的,你可以買來自己居住,也可以出租給別人。你也可以購買一種名為房地產投資信托的證券,它把股票的收益與土地、商場、公寓樓或幾乎任何你能想到的有形資產結合起來。

Investing Structures and Entities

投資結構和實體

When you move beyond stocks, bonds, mutual funds, and real estate, you encounter different types of investment entities. For example, millions of people will never own a share of stock or a bond. Instead, they invest their money in a family business, such a restaurant, retail shop, or rental property. Yes, these are businesses, but you also should consider them investments, and treat them accordingly.

除了股票、債券、共同基金和房地產之外,你還會遇到不同類型的投資實體。例如,數百萬人將永遠不會持有股票或債券。相反,他們把錢投資于家族企業,比如餐館、零售店或出租物業。是的,這些都是企業商家,但你也應該考慮他們的投資,并相應地對待他們。

學習投資,就像學習一門新的語言

More experienced investors likely will invest in hedge funds or private equity funds at some point in their life, while others will buy shares of publicly traded limited partnerships through their broker. These special legal structures can have big tax implications for you, and it is important you understand how investing through them can both benefit, and potentially harm your pocketbook.

經驗豐富的投資者可能在一生中的某個時候會投資對沖基金或私募股權基金,而其他人則通過經紀人購買公開交易的有限合伙企業的股票。這些特殊的法律結構可能會給你帶來很大的稅務影響。所以弄明白在此之下的投資是如何盈利的、又有什么風險,就非常重要。

Investing in a Bad Economy

經濟不景氣時的投資

It's the nature of the world that sometimes bad things happen. When they happen to your investments or savings, you don't need to panic. Sometimes, you need to take a hit before you can make some money again, and holding on until the recession ends is the best plan.

世事難測,當你在投資或儲蓄上出現問題時,不必恐慌。有時候,你需要先被打擊一次,然后才能再賺些錢。堅持到經濟衰退結束,才是最好的計劃。


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